Beginner's Tutorial

System Encryption

 Supported Systems

 Hidden Operating System

 Rescue Disk

Plausible Deniability

 Hidden Volume

  Protection of Hidden Vol.

  Security Requirements

 Hidden Operating System



Hardware Acceleration

Encryption Algorithms





Hash Algorithms




Technical Details


 Encryption Scheme

 Modes of Operation

 Header Key Derivation

 Random Number Gen.


 Volume Format Spec.

 Standards Compliance

 Source Code

TrueCrypt Volume

 Creating New Volumes

 Favorite Volumes

 System Favorite Volumes

Main Program Window

 Program Menu

 Mounting Volumes

Supported Systems

Portable Mode


Tokens & Smart Cards

Language Packs

Hot Keys

Security Model

Security Requirements

 Data Leaks

  Paging File

  Hibernation File

  Memory Dump Files

 Unencrypted Data in RAM

 Physical Security


 Multi-User Environment

 Authenticity and Integrity

 New Passwords & Keyfiles

 Password/Keyfile Change

 Trim Operation


 Reallocated Sectors


 Journaling File Systems

 Volume Clones

 Additional Requirements

Command Line Usage

Backing Up Securely


 Use Without Admin Rights

 Sharing over Network

 Background Task

 Removable Medium Vol.

 TrueCrypt System Files

 Removing Encryption

 Uninstalling TrueCrypt

 Digital Signatures



Issues and Limitations


Future Development


Version History



References Search


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[1] U.S. Committee on National Security Systems (CNSS), National Policy on the Use of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to Protect National Security Systems and National Security Information, CNSS Policy No. 15, Fact Sheet No. 1, June 2003, available at

[2] C. E. Shannon, Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, Bell System Technical Journal, v. 28, n. 4, 1949

[3] NIST, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 197, November 26, 2001, available at

[4] J. Nechvatal, E. Barker, L. Bassham, W. Burr, M. Dworkin, J. Foti, E. Roback, NIST, Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), October 2, 2000, Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Vol. 106, No. 3, May-June 2001, available at

[5] B. Schneier, J. Kelsey, D. Whiting, D. Wagner, C. Hall, N. Ferguson, T. Kohno, M. Stay, The Twofish Team's Final Comments on AES Selection, May 15, 2000, available at

[6] Bruce Schneier, Beyond Fear: Thinking Sensibly About Security in an Uncertain World, Springer, 2003

[7] RSA Laboratories, PKCS #5 v2.0: Password-Based Cryptography Standard, RSA Data Security, Inc. Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS), March 25, 1999, available at

[8] H. Krawczyk, M. Bellare, R. Canetti, HMAC: Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication, RFC 2104, February 1997, available at

[9] M. Nystrom, RSA Security, Identifiers and Test Vectors for HMAC-SHA-224, HMAC-SHA-256, HMAC-SHA-384, and HMAC-SHA-512, RFC 4231, December 2005, available at

[10] Peter Gutmann, Software Generation of Practically Strong Random Numbers, presented at the 1998 Usenix Security Symposium, available at

[11] Carl Ellison, Cryptographic Random Numbers, originally an appendix to the P1363 standard, available at

[12] P. Rogaway, Efficient Instantiations of Tweakable Blockciphers and Refinements to Modes OCB and PMAC, Asiacrypt 2004. LNCS vol. 3329. Springer, 2004. Also available at:

[13] J. Kelsey, Twofish Technical Report #7: Key Separation in Twofish, AES Round 2 public comment, April 7, 2000

[14] NIST, Secure Hash Standard, FIPS 180-2, August 1, 2002, available at

[15] U. Maurer, J. Massey, Cascade Ciphers: The Importance of Being First, Journal of Cryptology, v. 6, n. 1, 1993

[16] Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1996

[17] Peter Gutmann, Secure Deletion of Data from Magnetic and Solid-State Memory, first published in the Sixth USENIX Security Symposium Proceedings, San Jose, California, July 22-25, 1996, available at

[18] Serpent home page:

[19] M. E. Smid, AES Issues, AES Round 2 Comments, May 22, 2000, available at

[20] A. Menezes, P. van Oorschot, S. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC Press, October 1996

[21] International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Information technology – Security techniques – Hash-functions – Part 3: Dedicated hash-functions, ISO/IEC 10118-3:2004, February 24, 2004

[22] NIST, The Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC), Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 198, March 6, 2002, available at

[23] RSA Laboratories, PKCS #11 v2.20: Password-Based Cryptography Standard, RSA Security, Inc. Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS), June 28, 2004, available at

[24] Morris Dworkin, Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: The XTS-AES Mode for Confidentiality on Storage Devices, NIST Special Publication 800-3E, January 2010, available at

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