Beginner's Tutorial

System Encryption

 Supported Systems

 Hidden Operating System

 Rescue Disk

Plausible Deniability

 Hidden Volume

  Protection of Hidden Vol.

  Security Requirements

 Hidden Operating System



Hardware Acceleration

Encryption Algorithms





Hash Algorithms




Technical Details


 Encryption Scheme

 Modes of Operation

 Header Key Derivation

 Random Number Gen.


 Volume Format Spec.

 Standards Compliance

 Source Code

TrueCrypt Volume

 Creating New Volumes

 Favorite Volumes

 System Favorite Volumes

Main Program Window

 Program Menu

 Mounting Volumes

Supported Systems

Portable Mode


Tokens & Smart Cards

Language Packs

Hot Keys

Security Model

Security Requirements

 Data Leaks

  Paging File

  Hibernation File

  Memory Dump Files

 Unencrypted Data in RAM

 Physical Security


 Multi-User Environment

 Authenticity and Integrity

 New Passwords & Keyfiles

 Password/Keyfile Change

 Trim Operation


 Reallocated Sectors


 Journaling File Systems

 Volume Clones

 Additional Requirements

Command Line Usage

Backing Up Securely


 Use Without Admin Rights

 Sharing over Network

 Background Task

 Removable Medium Vol.

 TrueCrypt System Files

 Removing Encryption

 Uninstalling TrueCrypt

 Digital Signatures



Issues and Limitations


Future Development


Version History



Security Requirements and Precautions >  Defragmenting Search


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When you (or the operating system) defragment the file system in which a file-hosted TrueCrypt container is stored, a copy of the TrueCrypt container (or of its fragment) may remain in the free space on the host volume (in the defragmented file system). This may have various security implications. For example, if you change the volume password/keyfile(s) afterwards, and an adversary finds the old copy or fragment (the old header) of the TrueCrypt volume, he might use it to mount the volume using an old compromised password (and/or using compromised keyfiles that were necessary to mount the volume before the volume header was re-encrypted). To prevent this and other possible security issues (such as those mentioned in the section Volume Clones), do one of the following:

  • Use a partition/device-hosted TrueCrypt volume instead of file-hosted.
  • Securely erase free space on the host volume (in the defragmented file system) after defragmenting.
  • Do not defragment file systems in which you store TrueCrypt volumes.

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